tech ed for teachers

Compiled by kristina smith

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Brzycki, D. & Dudt, K. (2005). Overcoming Barriers to Technology Use in Teacher Preparation Programs. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 619-641. Norfolk, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
Indiana, Clarion, and Edinboro Universities of Pennsylvania are completing a PT3 grant, funded by the U.S. Department of Education, entitled "Preparing Teachers for the Digital Age." The grant made great progress in infusing technology into the teacher preparation curriculum possible, and participating faculty know how far they have come. But this innovation remains incomplete-some outcomes remain unachieved, and many faculty are still in early stages of technology adoption. Moreover, the barriers to technology adoption- time, support, models, infrastructure, and culture- persist and even reappear with new technologies. This article reviews the status of the barriers to technology adoption and their relationship to the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) and other research. The successful methods used in this project and the lessons learned are also reviewed and related to CBAM and other research. It concludes that change facilitators need to offer multiple forms of support and incentives, tie incentives to desired outcomes, involve faculty in decision-making to secure buy-in, use faculty models, supplement technical support with peer support and well trained student assistants, and cultivate strong administrative support. These methods will help deal with the persistent concerns and barriers to technology diffusion.

Svensson, A. (2011). Challenges for Collaboration in E-learning: Towards an E-learning Pedagogical Practice. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 777-785). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). View
E-learning is a natural approach for distance learning. But it is also suitable to flexible learning, not only intended to situations where the learner is at a distance from the tutor or instructor. In achieving appropriate prerequisites for e-learning there are some challenges to cope with, within computer-mediated collaboration, digital competence and connections. The aim of this paper is to provide scientific insights and reflextive experiences as challenges to better understand and improve e-learning initiatives at educational institutions. The paper will argue for a collaborative effort based on participation from both a lecturers’ as well as a students’ perspectives. However, there are many different concept described different kind of e-learning.

Vannatta, R.A. (2000). Evaluation to Planning: Technology Integration in a School of Education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 8(3), 231-246. Charlottesville, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
This article describes the early stages of technology planning that includes: the development of a technology integration task force; the evaluation of current faculty levels of technol-ogy proficiency, integration, and implementation of the NCATE technology standards within the SUNY Oswego School of Education; and the development of recommenda-tions for a long range technology plan. A primary goal of the task force was that implementation of a long range technolo-gy plan would result in increased proficiencies and class-room integration among education faculty members and would ultimately lead to increased technology proficiency among education students. The evaluation consisted of the administration of two surveys that measured level of technol-ogy proficiency, frequency and type of classroom integration of technology, course implementation of NCATE technology standards for teachers, barriers to technology integration, and desired topics and format for technology training. Sixty-five full time education faculty members were administered the surveys through campus mail. Results (N=45) revealed that moderate to high levels of faculty proficiency and integration were limited to the areas of word processing, e-mail, and In-ternet related activities. The leading predictor of implementa-tion of NCATE standards was not overall proficiency of computer hardware/applications but proficiency in instruc-tional methods of technology integration. Recommendations for long range planning address equipment, faculty training, and programmatic changes.

Lim, C.P. & Khine, M. (2006). Managing Teachers’ Barriers to ICT Integration in Singapore Schools. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(1), 97-125. Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
This article examines the strategies employed by four Singapore schools (two primary and two junior colleges) to manage barriers to information and communication technologies (ICT) integration. Based on the observations of ICT-mediated lessons and face-to-face interviews with teachers, ICT heads-of-department and school principals, six strategies are identified and discussed: (a) appointment of technical support staff, (b) appointment and training of student ICT helpers, (c) sufficient time for teachers to prepare for ICT-mediated lessons, (d) collaboration among teachers in preparing ICT-mediated lessons, (e) support provided by school leaders in addressing teachers’ ICT concerns, and (f) training, demonstrations or advice for teachers on how to incorporate ICT into classroom instruction. A further four recommendations are made by the authors to support these strategies.

McKinney, M.O., Jones, W.P., Strudler, N.B. & Quinn, L.F. (1999). First-year Teachers’ Use of Technology: Preparation, Expectations and Realities. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 7(2), 115-129. Charlottesville, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
This article reports the results of a study that investigated the needs and concerns of first-year teachers including the problems they encountered, the support they received, and the degree to which they felt prepared to use technology. Beginning teachers participating in the study reported that: (a) access to computer resources was a major problem; (b) support for technology varied greatly from school to school; (c) their preparation to teach with technology lagged behind their preparation for other instructional strategies; and (d) student teaching had a minimal impact on their preparation to teach with computers. Findings of the study are consistent with the mounting evidence that beginning teachers are not being adequately prepared to teach with technology. The authors recommend increased efforts to integrate technology into preservice courses and field experiences. They further recommend the need for research that documents specifics of current practices, levels of preparation, and approaches that promote effective implementation of technology by beginning teachers.

Stetson, R. & Bagwell, T. (1999). Technology and Teacher Preparation: An Oxymoron?. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 7(2), 145-152. Charlottesville, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
This article describes the dilemmas school districts and colleges of education are facing as they move toward training both veteran and new teachers to integrate technology as a teaching/learning tool in their classrooms. It outlines the resistance of many schools, colleges, and departments of education to embrace technological applications into their methods coursework. An overview of what is needed to overcome such resistance is discussed. The manuscript concludes with a description of an innovative field-based teacher preparation program that infuses the use of technology into its teacher preparation program. This three-year-old program was collaboratively designed and implemented by a team of classroom teachers, administrators, community representatives, and university faculty as the first step toward systemic educational reform.

Niederhauser, D.S., Salem, D.J. & Fields, M. (1999). Exploring Teaching, Learning, and Instructional Reform in an Introductory Technology Course. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 7(2), 153-172. Charlottesville, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
The typical introduction to technology course focuses on helping preservice teachers develop skills for using technology and integrating it into their practice (Downs, 1992; McKenzie, 1994; Niess, 1991; Raiford & Braulick, 1995). Current national standards for technology in teacher preparation also emphasize the importance of developing skills and competencies for using technology (ISTE, 1997; Wiebe & Taylor, 1997). Thus, technology teacher educators tend to see teaching technology-related skills as the primary purpose for the introductory technology course. However, the preservice technology course has the potential to fill a more central role in a teacher education program. The technology course can provide an authentic context for future educators to examine instructional practices and reflect on their learning as they learn new skills and content. Unlike content-area methods courses—in which preservice teachers often assume they understand the content and are simply learning to teach it—most students expect to learn new concepts and skills in technology courses. Course activities can be designed to help students develop technical competence as they explore educational issues in teaching, learning, and instructional reform. Instructional practice is in a state of transition in American public schools. Ongoing instructional reform efforts promote the use of student-centered cognitive constructivist1 teaching methods (Cobb, 1994; Jonassen, 1991; von Glasersfeld, 1989; 1995). From a constructivist perspective, the learner actively integrates new information with existing knowledge to construct meaning through experience and develops personal theories about the physical and social world (Piaget, 1970; 1980). Constructivists argue that education involves providing activities and an environment that supports student efforts to construct increasingly complex and sophisticated understandings. Most preservice teachers, however, have a vision of schooling that is grounded in didactic instructional methods. Didactic pedagogy reflects an objectivist tradition that centers on the efficient transfer of knowledge to students and the replication of basic skills (Duffy & Jonassen, 1992; Jonassen, 1991; Lakoff, 1987). Technology provides a versatile instructional tool that can be used to support both pedagogical orientations. Thus, activities in the introductory technology course can be structured to help students compare and contrast these two viewpoints based on their own learning experiences. The technology course provides a forum for preservice teachers to: (a) reflect on their own learning processes, (b) develop a deeper understanding of learning theory, (c) analyze assumptions underlying traditional and reform-oriented instructional methods, (d) critique the nature of school-based learning experiences, and (e) examine the relationship between learning theory and instructional practice. In the following sections we discuss issues associated with the instructional reform movement, describe factors associated with conceptual change, and present a series of course activities designed to help students explore learning, instruction and reform in our introductory technology course.

Hattler, J.A. (1999). Technology for Preservice Teachers: “Driver Education” for the Information Superhighway. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 7(4), 323-332. Charlottesville, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
The rapid advances in technology present challenges to collegiate departments of education in their preservice-teacher coursework. Specifically, in this paper, the use of the Internet's World Wide Web (WWW), the information superhighway, is presented as one important way to integrate technology and the vast amount of information it makes available. The discussion includes a look at the current and future implementations of technology in American education. If preservice teachers are to become technologically literate and bring technology into their classrooms effectively, it is imperative that preservice teachers experience online learning. Thus, websites offer "driver education" for traveling the information superhighway to preservice teachers. A myriad of websites which cover topics from children's literature to favorite adolescent authors to specific content areas as math, science, art, music, social studies, health, multicultural, and physical education are included. Websites offer online learners a variety of lesson plans, teaching styles, and strategies for learning situations. Additionally, websites and Internet chat rooms address issues specific to developmental or academic needs of students, professional growth, and state and national reform efforts in education.

Gillingham, M.G. & Topper, A. (1999). Technology in Teacher Preparation: Preparing Teachers for the Future. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 7(4), 303-321. Charlottesville, VA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. View
Faculty and administrators in teacher preparation programs face the dilemma of preparing teachers for an unknown, but increasingly technological classroom. We present four possible solutions to the problem of preparing teachers for the future and using technology in classrooms: single course, technology infusion, student performance, and case based. Each of these approaches has both positive and negative aspects. As an example of one college's solution, we present a case of the preparation and implementation of technology in teacher preparation at Michigan State University. We conclude that it is imperative that faculty and administrators of teacher preparation programs learn about modern information and communication technology and incorporate them into their programs in meaningful ways.

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