Diagram Representation: A Comparison of Animated and Static Formats
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Multimedia enables novel ways of representing information, most strikingly as animations, but we lack good detailed accounts of its value for learning. The main study reported here investigates the value of animation for students aged thirteen and fourteen, learning the principles of cardiac circulation. The study compared the effects of media type, paper-based diagram versus computer-based animation, and of design of the learning task, structured versus open, in a 2 x 2 design. Learning was measured by completion of a diagram of blood flow through the heart. Statistical analysis showed a significant overall effect of task design but not of media type. Further analysis, however, showed that the animation produced distinctive kinds of errors and a second study looked in more detail at the effects of working with an animation. Results suggest it has the effect of making learners over-confident but can ultimately provide some benefits over static formats.
Jones, S. & Scaife, M. (1999). Diagram Representation: A Comparison of Animated and Static Formats. In B. Collis & R. Oliver (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 1999 (pp. 622-627). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.editlib.org/p/6680.
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