Development of social presence scale
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Kim, J. (2009). Development of social presence scale. In T. Bastiaens et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2009 (pp. 446-451). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/32498.
World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (ELEARN) 2009
October 26, 2009
Theo Bastiaens, Jon Dron & Cindy Xin
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Table of Contents
This paper is examine the construct of social presence and develop the scale to measure social presence in distance higher education setting. Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses were used to verify validity and reliability through many different kinds. The findings showed that social presence is constituted of 4 factors such as mutual attention and support, affective connectedness, sense of community and open communication. Moreover the scale with 19 items was generated as a result
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